From Automotive World

By Xavier Boucherat


There will inevitably be a time when vehicles possessing partial if not full autonomous capabilities will share the road with those that do not, including other road-users such as bikes and scooters. In amongst all these will remain pedestrians, some with bags of heavy shopping, others with pushchairs and strollers, and some on their feet, pushing their bikes: in short, a computer vision developer’s nightmare.

Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) connectivity will be key not just in enabling autonomous vehicles (AV) and unlocking their safety benefits, but in protecting all those mentioned above, and creating a smarter mobility ecosystem that benefits everyone regardless of whether they are connected. That’s according to Andras Varadi, Research Director at Commsignia, a Santa Clara-based Tier 2 software developer which has already put V2X to work: in Las Vegas, over 130 of its roadside units help power an autonomous Navya shuttle. These units allow the vehicles to safely navigate intersections and remain alert to other vehicles on the road.

“Today we see connectivity in vehicles being scaled up,” says Varadi, and recent activity from VW underlines this. The Golf 8, the latest iteration of the world’s largest automaker’s best selling car, can receive notifications from traffic infrastructure, as well as other vehicles up to 800 metres away. Meanwhile China, the world’s largest vehicle market, has made clear that connectivity forms a key part of its strategy moving forward, alongside electrification and autonomy. But how exactly will V2X deliver on its potential, and what are some of the challenges?

A common, co-operative language

One difficulty which Commsignia wants to help automakers overcome is the question of interoperability. How can the many sensor outputs and perceptions gathered not just by numerous different vehicle brands, but by roadside devices and fusions of the two be translated into something common, useful to all devices? Data might come from a camera, radar, or any other number of sources, says Varadi, and the speed at which information is required by moving vehicles makes for rapid work.

“The data needs to be small, fast, and there’s a tonne of it to fuse on the receiving side which could be useful for nearby vehicles,” he says. “The goal is to have this technology available as soon as possible, and also to ensure that it can all be trusted.” Commsignia is actively working with the European Committee for Standardisation (ETSI) in tackling this challenge. Collective Perception Message (CPM) technology, currently being designed at ETSI, will be able to give vehicles information they cannot realistically source from anywhere else. Varadi gives the example of an animal running into the road, detected by radar on one vehicle and shared to all surrounding connected systems in milliseconds.

“CPM can track essentially anything related to safety, including pedestrians, cars and trucks,” he says. Critically, this could help the industry during a transition period in which some vehicles boast connected or autonomous capabilities, and others do not. “The penetration required for a near-to-complete mapping of an area is quite low,” says Varadi, “and it’s a good way of digitalising every and any participant among the flow of traffic.” Connected vehicles that understand what is going on around them, he adds, improve the safety of everyone and everything surrounding it.

Low latency communication opens up so many possibilities: vehicles can discuss which lane they will use, at which time to let each other through, how to navigate normally crowded intersections, and so on

Varadi believes it is important for automakers to think of V2X as not simply another sensor, but also as a way of relaying communications and data between vehicles. Moving forward, vehicles will be able to ‘discuss’ things together, such as where they are going to be. Traffic flows can be optimised accordingly, and similar ideas could be used in platooning, which will allow trucks to travel in close proximity to each other.

The competitive edge

Of course, what automakers choose to do with this data will lie in their hands: some, for example, may have concerns around the trustworthiness of the data. The benefits on offer, however, could prove a hugely important differentiator for brands, and V2X will lend a competitive edge to those automakers who adopt early.

“It comes down to how much you trust the data, and how much you allow your car to depend on it,” says Varadi. “For example, if the V2X tells you about a dangerous situation, the car has to decide how much it can rely on that data and whether it needs to validate that information, perhaps by cross-checking it against sensors.”

With automakers offering increasingly sophisticated technologies, such as advanced cruise control, they are unlikely to turn down extra layers of safety such as that offered by V2X and CPM. Technologies that allow vehicles to work co-operatively could be a key piece in the puzzle for eyes-off, hands-off driving. In addition, Varadi points out, with NCAPs now turning attention to connectivity, V2X compatibility is likely to become important for those seeking all important high star ratings on models.

Inter-brand trust will also be important. “There needs to be an agreement across all stakeholders, from automakers to component suppliers,” says Varadi, “which establishes the services needed, or at the least who will be operating connected cars. In the end, it is a co-operative system we’re discussing, which is only as strong as its weakest link.”

New learnings

V2X being a relatively new technology, one of the major tasks at hand for suppliers such as Commsignia will be to educate the industry on its potential, addressing applications across both the passenger vehicle segment and the commercial vehicle segment. In addition, the role of city transport authorities, infrastructure providers and road operators will be pivotal. Interest on this side of the equation is high, says Varadi: not only are the safety benefits manifold, but they could optimise traffic flows, easing congestion and reducing emissions through improved braking and acceleration.

“All this requires a very complex orchestration of vehicles, possible through V2X,” he concludes. “Low latency communication opens up so many possibilities: vehicles can discuss which lane they will use, at which time to let each other through, how to navigate normally crowded intersections, and so on.” If ever we are to realise the smart city future so frequently promised, it will surely be dependent on such capabilities.




MONTREALApril 27, 2020 /PRNewswire/ — Accedian, a leader in performance analytics, cybersecurity threat detection, and end user experience solutions, and New Context, a leader in Digital Transformation for infrastructure security, today announced a strategic partnership to revolutionize next-generation vehicle to grid (V2G) and cellular vehicle to everything (C-V2X) infrastructure. This new partnership will help connect countless sensors, applications, autonomous cars, charging stations, and remote services to retail companies, to the utility sector, and to the insurance industry in an ever-expanding ecosystem to accelerate our global economy.

The foundation of the global supply chain is rapidly aging out. Outdated roads, energy grids, and telecommunications systems are incapable of supporting the development and adoption of the next-generation V2G and C-V2X infrastructure required to successfully compete on tomorrow’s global stage. In order to accelerate the update of infrastructure to match the speed of the data which must run across it, one must revolutionize how one thinks, organizes, and builds it, from start to finish.

The explosion of cloud networks at the edge is fueling a multitude of challenges increasingly exacerbated by a sprawling network of AI, IoT sensors, 4G/ LTE, and 5G cloudlets embedded across an inefficient patchwork of modern infrastructure. From shipping containers to carriers, Accedian and New Context are poised to help engineer the next generation of V2G and C-V2X solutions. Overcoming previous limiting factors such as legacy commercial cloud security models and disaggregated telecom providers, the partnership offers cross-carrier, cross-jurisdiction, and cross-border edge security solutions and transactional forensic attestation at scale.

Powered by the next-generation interactive grid, tomorrow’s supply chain will perform at the edge, with remote applications, such as Bechtel and General Motors who are already spearheading the way. Smart freight and smart sensors will interact with their users in unprecedented ways and will increasingly require a completely revolutionized infrastructure design to power everything from mass transportation synchronicity to micro-services tailored to specific freight, ports, toll systems and warehouses.

Accedian will provide their foundational technology, Skylight, which delivers the ability to detect real-time suspicious, malicious, and anomalous behaviors and provides a single source of truth for V2G and C-V2X infrastructure, as well as supply chain assurance, regulatory compliance, insurance and payment systems, operating at the edge. New Context will harness its expertise at engineering visionary data architecture solutions in the utility, robotic, and industrial sectors to modernize the next generation of infrastructure landscape with an ever-changing rulebook for data, which will continue to vary by nation, locality, or state.

“In a world of millions of autonomous cars and billions of sensors, there will be a whole host of unforeseen and new infrastructure challenges. Industrial, utility, and automotive companies will blend into one ecosystem. Data must be able to pass through them and still maintain all regulatory compliance. We are among a few select companies that have the depth and breadth of experience in this interconnected landscape, and Skylight will give us the visibility to achieve transparency,” said Daniel Riedel, CEO of New Context.

“Skylight rapidly provides the critical insight needed to detect advanced, targeted cyber breaches and other evasive attacks that are notably more difficult for organizations to find and prevent: in short, it provides the digital assurance required to operate the global economy’s critical energy and supply chain ecosystem,” added Michael Rezek, Vice President of Cybersecurity Strategy at Accedian.

The strategic partnership between Accedian and New Context is a critical first step to fulfilling the sprawling demands of modernizing V2G and C-V2X infrastructure and unlocking the opportunities the new economy requires.








SOURCE: Ericsson

Experienced Researcher, networks

MAY 01, 2020 


As we enter the era of autonomous driving, sharing information between vehicles has become more important than ever. In the second of our vehicle-to-everything (V2X) blog posts, we discuss the challenges of geocasting, and propose a new geocasting mechanism based on map data that could be the next step for cellular V2X communication.


Sharing information between vehicles on the road is nothing new. Not only does it include safety-related messages linked to icy roads, emergency braking, and other road hazards, but also communication for improving comfort and efficiency by optimizing maneuvers in a collaborative approach and avoiding frequent-stop braking in heavy traffic scenarios.

Some approaches rely on direct communication between vehicles, although this has the general drawback of having limited range because vehicles depend solely on messages sent from other vehicles within its range without any pre-processing.

In a different approach however, vehicles can communicate via cellular networks, such as 5G, reusing existing infrastructure and leveraging on novel developments in edge cloud, protocols on top of IP, and ultra-low latency.

In our previous blog post, Cellular V2X: What can we expect on the road ahead?, we discussed a number of challenges for Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) messaging via cellular. One of the challenges is geocasting. We defined geocasting as a routing technique for messages based on the recipient’s geographic area. However, we demonstrated a new geocasting mechanism based on map data that could be the next step for cellular V2X communication. The demo included the distribution of hazard warning messages over cellular communication. The use case was demonstrated in 16 October 2019 in a closing event for the ConVex project using our 5G-Connected Mobility test network on the A9 highway near Nuremberg, Germany.

Identifying the right vehicles

A large segment of automotive services is correlated with the vehicle’s current location and its future path. If we take the Traffic Message Channel (TMC) on the radio as an example, the radio channel broadcasts traffic information related to the region where it is broadcasted, because this is the information that is relevant to the vehicles in this area.

Services offered via IP-based systems use the client IP address to locate it in the network and connect to it. Sometimes the IP address is used to identify the client’s geographical location, since a client IP can tell us in which country the client exists.

How can a service provider or a vehicle identify which vehicles are interested in the information to be distributed? For example, in case of direct communication, the vehicle would broadcast its message, and whoever was in range of that message would be considered relevant.

Going back to the TMC example, the reporter would simply say the following: “For those of you heading south on I-15 on your commute home from work, expect some delays around the 215 interchange. Road crews are making repairs in the left lane, so commuters should be prepared to shift over to the right around 7200 South.” The drivers listening to the broadcast would use their cognitive ability to understand if this information is relevant to them or not. Then they will react accordingly. Unfortunately, such cognitive ability doesn’t exist in vehicles. So, once an incident is identified, it’s crucial to identify how to send a notification to vehicles in the region of the incident. Such knowledge might be difficult for a vehicle to acquire, because it has to track all vehicles in proximity and identify which vehicle has an interest in the information before sending it. That’s why it’s more realistic to delegate this functionality to a node hosted in the cloud.

In the coming sections, we discuss an efficient geocasting algorithm that clusters vehicles according to their locations and distributes messages to vehicles registered to the cluster.

Setting the scene for geocasting

Geocasting is a term used to refer to the process of sending a message to a group of receivers present in a specific geographical cluster. The objective of a good geocasting mechanism is to guarantee efficient distribution of messages to all relevant receivers with the lowest cost possible.  So, how do you form efficient clusters, and how do you decide when a vehicle is eligible to join or leave another cluster? It depends on the current location of the vehicle, and its anticipated path.

One easy way to do this is to draw an elliptical area around the vehicle. Once any vehicle enters this ellipse it becomes a member of the cluster. Another way is using a Quadtree data structure to represent a hierarchal decomposition of an area into small regions. This solution was used in the C-roads project and was described in detail in the deliverables. The process of mapping areas into logical clusters is known as geo-referencing. We will also refer to each cluster as the Region of Interest (RoI).

A vehicle or a cloud service can send messages to other vehicles within a given RoI that are not interested in the information. Those vehicles would simply evaluate the message and decide to ignore it. However, this solution might be costly if we use cellular unicast communication because the message was sent to irrelevant recipients.

The street geometry and driving rules are very important factors to determine the RoI. For example, RoI on a highway can be a few kilometers, because of the speed of the vehicles, while on a small street it can be less than 1km. The proposed mechanism uses information derived from map providers such as OpenStreetMap®(OSM) and a set of data structures and algorithms from graph theory to build the RoIs and traverse through them.

Nodes and Ways

If we take a look at a map example from OSM, we will see that it comes in the form of an XML file. It consists of many elements that describe all the details on the map in a given area. The two important elements are Nodes and Ways. Figure 2 represents the nodes in the Map XML. Each node is a virtual point on the map, which has a unique ID and coordinates. This node is used as an anchor point on the map.

|Figure 3 depicts the “Way” representation in the Map XML. It is an element that describes any shape in the Map. This shape could be a building, a garden or a street. Each way consists of multiple elements, where each element has ID reference to a given node. The node references are inserted in the same order where they exist on the street, hence the first node reference in the way element is the first node in this section of the street, and the last node in the element is the last node in this section in the street. The same node can be used to describe multiple ways. If a node exists in two ways that means that this node connects them. As shown in figure 3 and 4, way ID 98555 and way ID 98554 starts and ends at node ID 16 respectively. So, we can say that they are connected via node 16.

Weighted directed graphs

Using all the nodes, we can build a weighted directed graph. Each node is considered as a vertex, the edge is the line between nodes and the weight is the distance between each node. After forming the graph, we can traverse through it and form a unique RoI out of a group of connected edges.

Each RoI can have a certain shape and length that can be pre-configured. For example, if the edge type is a motorway, we can have each RoI with a length of 10km, while if the edge type is a residential road, we can configure the RoI length to 1km. Beside street speed limit, other factors can also be used to define a suitable length of an RoI such as normal street capacity and network conditions. In principle, the RoI length can range from a few meters to multiple kilometers.

Let’s take a look at figure 5 and observe how our graph looks. We can see that the RoIs are following exactly the same shape as the street. They are also connected to each other in a consecutive way, exactly as the streets are connected in reality. This connectivity is a basic characteristic of graphs which we can use to our advantage to distribute messages in specific areas. For example, if an incident occurs at RoI #3, this would affect all vehicles arriving in this location after 10 km. We can use different graph traversal algorithms to find all RoIs that are 10km away from the incident. If we assume it’s right-hand traffic, it would be RoI #3, RoI #2, RoI #1 and RoI #7. Therefore, all vehicles within those RoIs should get a notification about the incident.

Now that we partitioned our map into accurate RoIs, how can we find the suitable RoI for each vehicle? We can do this by finding out the closest node to the vehicle. This can be achieved using a space-partitioning data structure such as k-d tree. This allows us to search for the closest nodes to a given point in logarithmic running time, relevant to the number of nodes in the tree. We use it to sort all the nodes used to build the RoI graph based on the coordinates.

Setting the right orientation for nodes

Now that all the nodes are sorted, we can easily query the closest node to our vehicle and figure out which RoI belongs to this node. However, is it always the closest node that is the right node for the vehicle? Not really. What if the closest node to the vehicle is a node in the opposite direction of travel? To solve this problem, we need to identify an orientation for every node. The orientation is the bearing angle between the node and the next node in the direction of travel. That means that a node can have multiple orientation angles if it is on a junction, as shown for node 8 in figure 6, where the bearing angle is the angle between two points and the true north in degrees.

Now that every node has an orientation. We can query the closest 10 nodes to our vehicle. Then we compare the orientation of the closest node to the heading of the vehicle. Here, we need some tolerance because the orientation angle will never be exactly equal to the vehicle heading. Therefore, we need to allow a margin of error of around 10°. If the node is close to the vehicle and has a similar orientation, then the vehicle belongs to the same RoI as the edge corresponding to this node, in case a vertex belongs to two edges, the edge coming to the vertex is chosen.

The geocasting process

Now let’s go over a quick example to see how the geocasting works. Figure 7 shows an abstract call flow for the geocasting process. The geocasting engine is hosted within the application server (AS) process in a pre-configured map area and computes all the RoI graphs and the k-d tree.

The application server exposes an API (Application Programming Interface) for the RoI queries and an API for message distribution. The vehicle sends a query to the application server, including its current coordinates and heading angle. The application server calculates the relevant RoI and identifies its border, both of which are then sent to the vehicle. The application server registers the vehicle in the given RoI. If the vehicle diverts from the RoI, it queries a new RoI. If a vehicle or a service provider detects an incident, it sends the incident message to the application server including the hazard coordinates, the direction of travel and the range of the message distribution (i.e., how far the message should be sent from its source). The application server calculates the current RoI of the message, just like it would do for a vehicle. Afterwards, it traverses through the graph and finds all connected RoIs within the range. Finally, the application server forwards the message to all vehicles that are registered to the targeted RoIs.

It can be noted that the call flow described in figure 7 represents an abstract call flow using the proposed API. With few modifications, it can be applied for protocols with a publish/subscribe pattern such as Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) or pull pattern such as HTTP or even a combination of different patterns.


SOURCE: Transportation Today

The Motor & Equipment Manufacturers Association (MEMA) announced Thursday it applauds vehicle manufacturers for their pledge to install 5 million radios for vehicle-to-everything (V2X) applications over the next five years.

According to a letter from the Alliance for Automotive Innovation (AAI) to U.S. Department of Transportation Secretary Elaine Chao and Ajit Pai, Chairman of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission, the AAI pledged to use the 5.9Ghz safety spectrum band in the U.S. to deliver safer, more economical and more environmentally conscious automobiles.

“Vehicle-to-everything (“V2X”) communication technologies promise to deliver significant safety and societal benefits to the American public, including reducing automotive crashes and fatalities and producing economic, environmental, and transportation efficiencies,” AAI said in its April 23 letter. “Recognizing the opportunity for these benefits, automotive manufacturers have already deployed or announced deployments utilizing the 5.9 GHz Safety Spectrum band in the [U.S.] and around the world. These commitments and efforts represent a clear desire and intent by the automotive industry to use the spectrum and highlight the progress that has been made towards the widespread deployment of V2X. In fact, the companies with deployed or announced deployments account for over 60% of the automotive market share in the United States. It is noteworthy that this activity has occurred despite uncertainty from regulators about future use of the 5.9 GHz band.”

MEMA said manufacturers having access to that 5.9 GHz band is paramount for transportation safety and that its members, automotive suppliers, and vendors, need assurances the federal government will dedicate that band to automotive manufacturers.

“Suppliers are critical in the ongoing development and implementation of V2X technologies and are poised to meet the production needs of their customers to support this commitment. The promise to deploy five million radios in five years ensures that the network effects necessary to maximize the safety benefits of V2X will be achieved,” MEMA said in its statement. “The build-out commitment is a leap forward in realizing the joint vision of the U.S. DOT and FCC for V2X. Moreover, it will significantly advance U.S. global leadership in connected and autonomous vehicles.”


The new generation of cars will help the EU achieve its Green New Deal targets

Over 30 million cars already connect to mobile networks. As telco operators, vehicle manufacturers and equipment suppliers work together to offer more services, cars will evolve to become an intelligent hub – able to sense, share, self-assess and stream, seamlessly.

Often, we think of connected cars as belonging to the future. But they are already here and becoming more and more intelligent by the day.

C-V2X (Cellular Vehicle-to-Everything), the most promising technology for the future, is already commercially available today worldwide, since it can use the existing 3G and 4G LTE (Long-term Evolution) networks that presently provide all our mobile services.

So, although much of the present debate in Europe is about which technologies should form the bedrock of the standards for future connected vehicles in the 5G era, the reality is: we do not have to wait for 5G. Connected Automated Mobility (CAM) can be delivered today through existing cellular networks.

Cellular Vehicle technology is already available, and the next enhancements will deliver even more services such as intersection collision risk warnings, optimal speed advisories, road hazard warnings, and so on. This is thanks to a combination of short-range communications directly with equipment using the PC5 interface, and long-range services using UU, the radio interface between mobile and radio access networks.

For a safer, cleaner, more efficient transport system

There are three key trends in the car industry at the moment: vehicles are becoming 1) intelligent hubs, 2) connected, and 3) electric. The connectivity they need is seamless, broadband, with low latency and high reliability.

Connected Automated Mobility will prove to be the enabler for a safer, cleaner, more efficient mobility system. It can help the European Union achieve its Green New Deal targets: reducing fuel consumption, lowering CO2 emissions, putting more electric cars on the road, increasing shared mobility and autonomous driving, etc.

Additionally, the current, proven V2X system can smoothly and naturally evolve to 5G-V2X, to add advanced services and support the next steps for autonomous driving, tele-operated driving, platooning (self-driving cars travelling together), cooperative manoeuvring (coordination of manoeuvres with other vehicles), sensor data sharing, and so on.

Connected Automated Mobility is one of the flagship use-cases in the European Commission’s 5G Action Plan. C-V2X synergies with mobile networks to allow a multiplier effect: not just in terms of road safety and efficiency, but with wider goals, like closing the digital gap by introducing denser networks to rural areas.

The choice of the right technology is still open in Europe, thankfully, after the EU Council rejected the adoption of last year’s proposed Delegated Act on Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems, due to the draft’s lack of technology neutrality, since it favoured one technology – conventional Wi-Fi (ITS-G5) – over another, the more forward-looking C-V2X.

Evolution towards 5G

Trials of C-V2X have taken place worldwide over the past couple of years and demonstrate how cars made by manufacturers in China, the US and Europe are becoming intelligent hubs that can seamlessly connect with each other as well as roadside infrastructure.

C-V2X also has the big advantage in being simple to integrate into smartphones to protect vulnerable road users such as cyclists and pedestrians. That’s why it’s important to provide a clear path for V2X to evolve to 5G.

The other key ingredient for success will be the creation of a broad, collaborative ecosystem that includes everyone from mobile network operators, car manufacturers, equipment suppliers, app providers to road operators and government.


Source: Pirelli

Turin, 14 November 2019 – Pirelli is the first tyre company in the world to transmit information detected by intelligent tyres regarding the road surface via the 5G network. In Turin today, the company presented the “World-first 5G enhanced ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) services” use case. The demonstration took place during “The 5G Path of Vehicle-to-Everything Communication” event organized by 5GAA – Automotive Association, of which Pirelli is a member.

Pirelli, Ericsson, Audi, Tim, Italdesign and KTH together staged a demonstration that took place on the roof of the Lingotto building showing how a vehicle equipped with the sensor-fitted Pirelli Cyber Tyre and connected to the 5G network was able to transmit the risk of aquaplaning detected by the tyres to a following car. This was thanks to 5G’s ultra-high band and low latency.

The tyre is the only point of contact between the vehicle and road and, thanks to the technology which Pirelli is perfecting, it communicated with the vehicle, driver and, thanks to the potential of 5G, with the entire roadway infrastructure. The Pirelli Cyber Tyre, equipped with an internal sensor, will in future supply the car with data relative to the tyre model, kilometers clocked, dynamic load and, for the first time, situations of potential danger on road surfaces, from the presence of water to poor grip. This information will enable the car to adapt its control and driving assistance systems, greatly improving the level of safety, comfort and performance. In addition, it will provide the same information to other cars and the infrastructure. Thanks to the potential of 5G, Pirelli is able to place the tyre inside a wider communication context which involves the enter ecosystem of on-road transportation, actively contributing to the development of solutions and services for future mobility and systems of autonomous driving.

This year Pirelli also presented its Italia Track Adrenaline, a product for lovers of track days, which includes a line of sensor-fitted P Zero Trofeo tyres. Track Adrenaline is a true track engineer in virtual form, which monitors tyre pressure and temperature in real time and combines this information with telemetric data to provide the driver indications and suggestions on how to improve his or her on-track performance.

The “sensoring” of tyres is an integral part of Pirelli’s “Perfect Fit” strategy, focused on the development of “tailor made” products and services to meet the needs of carmakers, fleets and drivers in general, with a view to the future and the changes underway in mobility.

Telefónica and SEAT, a Spanish automobile manufacturer recently demonstrated connected car and 5G assisted driving use cases in a real environment at the streets of L’Hospitalet de Llobregat in Barcelona.

Ericsson and Qualcomm Technologies also participated, by equipping both vehicles and their surrounding elements with technology that enables them to exchange information with the main objective of increasing road safety. The project is framed within the 5G Barcelona initiative, aimed at consolidating the city of Barcelona as the reference 5G hub in Europe.

The two technologies bringing these use cases to life are C-V2X (Cellular Vehicle to Everything) and C-V2X technology offers assisted driving by allowing the vehicle to communicate with all the elements around it (cars, traffic lights, traffic signals, pedestrians, cyclists, motorcycles…). In addition, for the cars to be able to “talk” to the city, latency needs to be minimal and, therefore, it is necessary to deploy 5G capabilities into the current network, specifically the Edge Computing server, a large distributed brain, hosting content and applications very close to where the user is consuming them.

SEAT contributed with two vehicles, Ateca and Arona models, equipped with the latest technology in connectivity and instrument panels that issue warnings to the driver. Telefónica provides the end-to-end connectivity and, as a novelty, is opening-up its network so third parties can deploy applications at the edge of the network, such as traffic management for this use case. Ficosa has developed and produced the in-car C-V2X communications platform that allows the transmission of information from the car to any entity that might impact the vehicle, and vice versa; i2CAT, in charge of the development of the ultra-precise location solution for bicycles; ETRA, supplier of the road infrastructure that provided connectivity with the traffic light system, and Mobile World Capital Barcelona, representing 5G Barcelona, the global supervisor of the project, also offering management support.Ericsson has provided 5G technology and Qualcomm Technologies the 5G connectivity platform both for the network communication and for the direct communication.

Read Original at EE Journal

Munich, February 18, 2019 — The automotive industry is evolving toward connected and autonomous vehicles that offer many benefits, such as improved safety, less traffic congestion, reduced environmental impact, and lower capital expenditure. With the trend to equip vehicles with 3GPP Release 14 C-V2X ECUs, peer-to-peer data transfer in ad-hoc networks between vehicles will be realized. All vehicles share location, speed and trajectory, enabling warnings regarding on-road dangers to be shared between drivers. Applications cover use cases such as vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication, data exchange with roadway infrastructure (V2I), and interaction with vulnerable road users such as pedestrians (V2P). Data communication is implemented in the 5.8 GHz and 5.9 GHz intelligent transportation system (ITS) spectrum bands.

Rohde & Schwarz and Vector have announced the successful demonstration of a solution designed to configure and run traffic scenarios to comprehensively test the physical layer 3GPP Rel. 14 up to the application layer of C-V2X ECUs in a lab environment.

Repeatable C-V2X testing for out-of-coverage situations

Rohde & Schwarz, a leading supplier of test & measurement equipment, has expanded the capabilities of its R&S CMW500 LTE network simulator and R&S SMBV100A/B GNSS simulator to operate with Vector CANoe .Car2x, a software tool for simulation, development and test of V2X-based communication applications. The solution enables engineers to easily verify critical end-to-end safety-related V2X scenarios in a lab environment.

The solution uses the C-V2X software package for the R&S CMW500 to simulate the Physical- and MAC-layer, transmitting and receiving data over the simulated PC5 interface. This covers ideal, faded and congested channel conditions to the device under test (DUT). In its current form, the solution supports both GNSS and PSSS/SSSS sidelink synchronization options.

CANoe .Car2x offers a range of functions designed to configure and run traffic scenarios. This allows the stimulation of a C-V2X control unit according to a defined traffic situation that tests the implemented application in a structured manner. The included Car2x Scenario Editor supports the creation of traffic scenarios using a graphical interface. CANoe .Car2x generates the corresponding ITS communication based on the test scenario. The scenario is then played back with the R&S CMW500 providing the radio access layer with the specific physical interface. This verifies data transmission and reception over the PC5 interface so that the functions of the ECU can be tested comprehensively.

The combined solution covers all layers – the complete stack, 3GPP Radio Access Layers for C-V2X Mode 4, region specific ITS protocol layers such as EU ITS-G5 and U.S. WAVE and the ITS application message sets. This enables testing of specific use cases such as Emergency Electronic Brake Light (EEBL), Left-Turn Assist (LTA) or Intersection Movement Assist (IMA), as well as more complex scenarios with multiple simulated vehicles such as a congested highway. Additionally, security mechanisms could also be verified running simulations with both valid and invalid signed certificates. On top of this CANoe supports all common automotive bus connectivity such as CAN, LIN, MOST, FlexRay and Automotive Ethernet, enabling the test engineer to analyze or stimulate the ECU within an entire system from their desk. By extending the solution with the VN4610 interface from Vector, customers can access IEEE 802.11p and CAN (FD) networks as well. This enables users to analyze and test C-V2X and IEEE 802.11p (DSRC) communication and related applications with a single setup and a common user interface.

“C-V2X device testing through the application layer is a significant step towards achieving the goal of having fully connected vehicles to improve road safety,” said Anton Messmer, VP Mobile Radio Testers at Rohde & Schwarz. “Our efforts in developing and verifying C-V2X end-to-end application scenarios are enabling user equipment manufacturers and OEMs to reduce the time needed to roll out C-V2X technology on a worldwide basis.”

“CANoe .Car2x has a strong focus on testing V2X based protocols and ADAS applications. This combined solution, CANoe .Car2x with the R&S CMW500, enables our customers to stimulate the V2X ECU with real scenario data in order to perform tests from physical layer up to the application” said Stefan Krauß, Director Tools for Network and Distribution Systems at Vector. “The collaboration on this solution shows what can be achieved when leading players from the automotive and telecommunication industries work hand in hand.”

Rohde & Schwarz demonstrates the test solution at MWC 2019 in Barcelona in hall 6, booth 6C40 from 25 to 28 February 2019. For further information on C-V2X testing solutions from Rohde & Schwarz, please visit:

Connected car communications help safely operate autonomous vehicles. IEEE senior member Alexander Wyglinski discusses the options available.

Alexander M. Wyglinski, IEEE

When connected cars talk to each other or their surrounding infrastructure, this is referred to as vehicle-to-everything, or V2X, communications. When connected cars explicitly communicate with another vehicle, we call this vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications, while connected cars talking to roadside units, traffic lights, road signage and so forth is called vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications.

In order to support V2X communications — either V2V or V2I — there are two approaches to create reliable wireless links between both ends of the communications channel, and each of these approaches has its own pros and cons.

The first approach is referred to as direct V2X, where a connected car directly forms a communications channel with the intended receiver whether it is another connected car or a roadside unit. For direct V2X, the transmitting vehicle literally connects with the intended receiver without the need for any additional infrastructure, such as base stations or relays, thus minimizing the communications delay in the transmission. This can significantly impact the safety applications of autonomous vehicles, which require real-time data.

The major disadvantage of the direct V2X approach is establishing the communication link in the first place, as it takes time and resources for both ends of the communications channel to agree upon a specific transmit frequency, data rate and other essential parameters that support communication.

Conversely, the second connected car communications approach, referred to as cellular V2X, or C-V2X, uses cellphone base station technology to connect all the vehicles and roadside units within the transportation ecosystem. Unlike the direct V2X approach, C-V2X possesses very little overhead when forming wireless links between transmitters and receivers.

On the other hand, the relay nature of the cellular infrastructure incurs a penalty that can potentially be dangerous in time-sensitive vehicle operations, such as safety applications and autonomous vehicle systems.

As a result, it is expected that in the near future a hybrid approach will be employed, where time-critical operations are handled by direct V2X communications while non-time-sensitive operations are handled by a C-V2X framework.

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Self-driving vehicles seem to make the headlines every week, whether it’s for something positive (like safely hauling a trailer of beer down Interstate 25 in Colorado) or negative (like involvement in a pedestrian fatality). Right now, all of these autonomous vehicles rely on the same basic technology elements, like sensors and machine learning, for navigation. As the industry matures, however, it will increasingly use another form of enabling technology that’s not even incorporated into the vehicle itself—smart streets.

One example of what those may look like can be found in Las Vegas, where the Regional Transportation Commission of Southern Nevada (RTC) reportedly has become the first road authority in the world to digitize its streets for highly automated vehicles (HAVs). The RTC used Inrix’s “Road Rules” platform to digitize local restrictions such as speed limits, crosswalks, school zones, and stop signs in two busy areas, according to the vendor.

Automakers and operators slated to use the platform at launch include Jaguar Land Rover, May Mobility, and nuTonomy, according to Inrix. As for where the technology is being deployed, the company says seven cities and road authorities are currently using Inrix AV Road Rules, including pilot users in Austin, Texas; Boston and Cambridge Mass.; and Portland, Maine.